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2009年人大考博英语真题

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2009年人大考博英语真题

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II. Vocabulary (10 points)
PartA (5 points)
Directions: Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices
           marked iL B, C arm 1). Choose the:one thatbest completes the
           sentence and mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across
           the square bracket on ANSWER SHEET 1.
Example:
    She prefers foreign wine to that produced__
    A. previously B. vLrtually        C. primarily   D. domestically
    The sentence should read,; "She prefers foreign wine to that produce
    domesticany." Therefore, you should choose D.
                                                                    Sample Answer
                                                                    [A] [B] [C] [D]
1.  International sport should create goodwill  between the nations, but in the
     present organization of the Olympics somehow encourages__  
     patriotism.
    A. obsolete      B. aggressive    C. harmonious  D. amiable
Z  One call understand others much better by noting the immediate and
     fleeting reactions of their eyes and __ to expressed thoughts.
    A. dilemmas     B. countenances  C. concessions  D. junctions
3.  People innately _____  for superiority  over their  peers although it
     sometimes takes the form of an exaggerated lust for power.
    A. strive         B. ascertain      C. justify D. adhere
4.  Some scientists have suggested that Earth is a kind of, zoo or wildlife
             for intelligent space beings, like the wilderness areas we have set
     up on earth to allow animals to develop naturally while we observe them.
    A. conservation  B. maintenance   C. storage       D. reserve
5.  According to the latest report, consumer confidence___  a breathtaking
     15 points .last month, to its lowest level in 9 years.
    A. soared       B. mutated      C. plummeted    D. fluctuated
6.  Melissa is a computer___ that destroyed files in computers and
      frustrated thousands of users around the world.
     A. genius       B. vires         C. disease       D. bacteria
7.  The  emphasis:on examinations is iby far the. worst form of
      competition in schools.
     A. negligent     B. edible        C. fabulous  D. disproportionate
8.  The boy seemed more _____ to their poverty, after seeing how his
      grandparents lived.
     A. reconciled                    B. consolidated
     C. deteriorated                  D. attributed
9.  During his two-month stay, in China, Tom never____ a chance to
      practice his Chinese.
     A. passed on     B. passed up     C. passed  by     D. passed out
10. When a person dies, his debts must be paid before his ____ can be
      distributed.
     A. paradoxes    B. legacies       C. platitudes    D. analogin
Part B (5 points)
Directions: In each of the following sentences there is one word or phrase
             underlined. Below the sentence are  four choices marked A, B, C, and
           D. Choose the one that is closest in meaning to the underiined part.
           Mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square
           bracket on ANSWER SHEET I.
Example:
    The secretary is Very competent; she can finish all these letters within one 
   bour.
    A. careful       B. industrious    C. clever        D. capable
    In this sentence, "competent" is closest -;n m e:zting to "capable". Therefore
    you should choose D.
                                                                    Sample Answer
                                                                    [A] [B] [C] [DD]
11. He claims that advertising  today tends to portray women in traditional
      roles such as cooking or taking care of the baby.
    A. depict        B. advocate       D; criticize    D. analyze
12,. They achieved more than they had eyer dreamed, lending a magic tO their
     family story  that  no tale or ordinary life could possibly rival.
    A.confirm     B. achieve    C.match        D exaggerate
13. The most urgent thing is to find a dump. for those toxic____ industrial wastes.
    A. imminent    B. recyclable C. smelly     D. poisonous
i4. British Prime Minister Tony Blair promised the electorate that guns would
     nor be fired without an attempt to win a further U.N.sanction.
    A. allies        B. delegates     C. voters       D. juries
15. The  analysis suggests that the tradeoff between our :children's college and
     our own retirement security is ,chilling.
    A. frightening  B. promising      C. freezing D. revealing
16. Their signing of the treaty  was regarded as a conspiracy against the British
     Crown.
    A. secret plan    B. bold attack      C. clever design D. joint effort
17. Evidence, reference, and foomotes by the thousand testify to a scrupulous
     researcher who does considerable justice to a full range of different
     beorefical and political positions.
    A. trustworthy   B. intelligent      C. diligent     D. meticulous
18. Despite their spartan, isolated lifestyle, them are no stories of women
     being raped or wanton violence against civilians in the region.
    A. intriguing   B. exasperating:   C. demonstrative D. unprovoked
19. The gang derived their  nickname from their dark clothing and blacked up
     faces for .nocturnal raids in the forest.
    A. illegal       B. night-time      C, brutal D. abusive
20. Though sometimes too lazy to work as hard as her sisters, Linda has a
     more avid fondness for the limelight,
    A. mercurial   B, gallant         C. ardent     D. frugal
III. Cloze (10 points)
Directions : Read the following  passage. Choose the best word for each
numbered blank and mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the
square  bracket on Answer Sheet I.
     Like many other aspects of the computer age, Yahoo began as an idea,
 ___  21 ___  into a hobby and Iately has  ____22 ____ into a full- time passion. The
two developers of Yahoo, David Filo and Jerry Yang, Ph. D candidates
 ___ 23 _  Electrical Engineering  at Stanford University, started theirguide in
April 1994 as a way to keep 24   of their personal interest on the Intemet.
Before long they  ___25  ___ that their home,brewed lists  were becoming too
long and ____ 26____  Gradually  they began to spend more andmore time on
  Yahoo.
       During 1994, they ____ 27____  yahoo into a customized database designed
  to____28_____ the needs of the thousands of users____29____  began to use the
  service through the closely ___ 30____ Intemet community. They developed
  customized software to help them___ 31 ___ locate, identify and edit material
  ___32___  on the Intemet.  The name Yahoo is ____  33____  to stand  for "Yet
  Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle". but Filo and Yang insist they selected
 the ___34 ___   because they considered themselves yahoos. Yahoo? itself first
 ___ 35 ___   on Yang's workstation, "akebono", while the search engine  was
 ___  36 ___  on Filo's computer, "Konishiki".
      In early 1995 Marc Andreessen, co-founder of Netscape Communication
 in Mountain View, California, invited Filo and Yang to move their files
 ___ 37___  to larger computers ___38____ at Netscape. As a result Stanford's
 computer network returned to ___  39___ , and both parties benefiasc. Today,
 Yahoo___  40  ___ organized information on tens of thousands of computers
 linked to the web.
 1. A. became        B. grew         C. mm          D. intend
 2.  A. made          B. saw           C. looked        D. turned
3.  A. in             B. on            C. about          D. fer
4.  A. touch          B. contact        C. n-ack          D. record
5.  A. founded        E. found         C. argued        D. reported
6.  A. unwieldy       B. tough          C. tamable        D  invaluable  
7.  A. exchanged      B. shank         C. sold           D. converted
8.  A. explain        B. serve          C. discover       D. evaluate
9. A. which         B. that          C. actually       D. eagerly
10. A. relative        B. interactive   C.bound         D. contacted
11. A. fluently        B. efficiently   C.exactly       D. actually
12. A. transmitted     B. purchased    C. sold         D.
13. A. about         B. bound        C. going         D. supposed
I4. A. fable          B. model         C. name          D. brand
15. A. supported      B. resided        C. lived          D. launched
16. A. connected     B. lodged        C. introduced     D. linked
17. A. over           B, away          C. inside         D. beneath
18. A. housed         B. caught        C. hosed         D. bidden
19. A. average        B. normal        C. ordinary      D. equal
20. A. attains        B.detains        C. maintains     D. contains
IV. Reading Comprehension (20 points)
Directions: Read the following passages, decideon the best one of the choices
marked A, B, C, and D for each question or unfinished statement and then mark
 the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square bracket on the
ANSWER SHEET.
 Passage 1
      Guthrie's contiguity principle offers practical suggestions for how to break
babies.
      One application of the thrcshoM method involves the time young children
 spend on academic activities. Young children have short attention spans, so the
 length of time they can sustain work on one activity is limited. Most activities
 are scheduled to last no longer than 30 to 40 minutes. However, at the start of
 the school year, attention spans quickly wane and behavior problems often
 result. To apply Gutiarie's theory, a teacher might, at the start of the year, limit
 activities to 15 to 20 minutes. Over the next few weeks the teacher could
 gredually  increase the time students spend working  on a single activity.
      The  threshold methoci also can be applied to teaching printing abd
 handwriting. When children first learn to form letters, their movements
 awkward and they lack free motor coordination. The distances between lines on
 a page are purposely wide so children can fit the letters into the space. If paper
 with narrow lines is initially introduced, students' letters would spill over the
 borders and students might become frustrated. Once students can form letters
 within the  larger borders, they can use paper with smaller borders to help them
 refine  their skills.
       The fatigue method can be applied when disciplining disruptive students
 who build paper airplanes and sail them across the room. The teacher can
 remove the students from the classroom, We them a large stack of paper, and
 tell them to start making paper airplanes. After the students have made several
 airplanes, the activity should lose its attraction and paper will become a cue for
 not building airplanes.
      Some students continually race around the gym when they first enter their
 physical education class. To employ the fatigue method, theteacher might
 decide to have these students continue to run a few more laps after the class has
 begun.
      The incompatible response method can be used with students who talk and
 misbehave in  the media center. Reading is incompatible with talking. The
media center teacher might ask the students'to find interesting books and read
them while in the center. Assuming that the studentS find the books enjoyable,
the media center will, over time, become a cue for selecting and reading books
rather than for talking with other students.
     In a social studies class some students regularly fall asleep. The teacher
realized that using the board and overhead projector while lecturing was very
boring. Soon the teacher began to incorporate other elements into each lesson,
such as experiments, videotapes, and debates, in an attempt to involvs students
and raise their interest in the course.
41. The purpose of this passage is to___
  A. inform         B. persuade         C. debate        D. narrate
42. Guthrie identified three methods for__
  A. educating students             B. altering bad habits
  C. avoiding undesired action         D. forming good hobbies
43. Which of the following is not the example of applying the threshold
method?
  A. Parents introduce spinach in small bites or mixed with a food than the
       child enjoys over time so that the child will not refuse to eat it.
  B. Teachers introduce academic content in short blocks of time for young
       children and gradually increase session length but not to where students
       become frustrated or bored.
  C. Paper with wider lines is first used and then paper with narrow  lines is
       introduced step by step to help children learn printing and handwriting.
  D. A child might be made to throw toys until it is no longer fan by his
       parents in order to change his behavior of repeatedly throwing toys.
44. To stop snacking while watching television, people should keep their hands
     busy by sewing, painting, working crossword puzzles, and so forth. Over
     time. watching TV becomes a cue for engaging in an activity other than
     snac 'king. What method is used in this example?
  A. The threshold method.                   B. The fatigue method.
  C. The incompatible response method.        D. The punishment method.
45. We can draw the conclusion from the passage that
  A. The incompatible response method is to force child to make unwanted
       response repeatedly in presence of stimulus until he or she becomes
       exhausted
  B. The threshold method refers to introducing undesired behavior with a
       response incompatible with the undesired response so they can not be
       performed simultaneously
  C. The fatigue method  means that engaging in the behavior is transformde
      into avoiding  it by introducing the stimulus at full strength so it becomes
       a cue for not performing it
  D. The fatigue  method is that in presence of stimulus teachers have child
      make response incompatible with unwanted  response
 Passage 2
     The increase in global trade means that international companies cannot
afford to make costly advertising mistakes if they want to be competitive.
     Understanding the language and culture of target markets in foreign
countries is one of the keys to successful international marketing. Too many
companies, however, have jumped into foreign markets with embarrassing
wralts  .
    Translation mistakes are at the heart of many blunders in international
advertising.
     General Motors, the US auto manufacturer, got a costly lesson when it
introduced its Chevrole Nova to the Puerto Rican market. "Nova" is Latin for
new (star)" and means "star" in many languages, but in spoken Spanish it can
sound like "no va", meaning "it doesn't go". Few people wanted to buy a car
with that cursed meaning. When GM changed the name to Caribe, sales
picked up" dramatically.
    Marketing blunders have also been made by food and beverage companies.
3ne American food company's friendly "Jolly Green Giant" (for advertising
,egetables) became something quite different when it was translated into
Arabic as "Intimidating Green Ogre".
    When translated into German Pepsi's popular slogan, "Come Alive with
Pepsi" came out implying "Come Alive from the Grave". No wonder customers
in  Germany didn't rush out to buy Pepsi.
    Successful  international  marketing  doesn't  stop  with  good
ranslafions--,-other aspects of culture must be researched and understood ff
aarketers are to avoid blunders.
    When marketers do not understand and appreciate the values, tastes,
geography, climate, superstitions, religion, or economy of a culture, they fail to
capture their target market.
     For example, an American  designer tried to introduce a new pentare ihto
     the Latin American market but the product aroused little interest. The mail
    reason was that the camellia used in it was traditionally used for funerals in
    many South American countries.
      Having awakened to the special nature of foreign advertising, companies
are becoming much more conscientious in their translations and more sensitive
to cultural distinctions.
                                                         
     The best way to prevent errors is to hire professional translators who
understand the target language and its idiomatic usage, or to use a technique
called "back translation" to reduce the possibility of blunders.
      The process uses one person to translate a message into the target
language and another to translate it back. Effective translators aim to capture
the, overall message of an advertisement because a word-for-word duplication
of the original rarely conveys the intended meaning and often causes
misunderstandings.
     In designing advertisements for other countries, messages need to  be shot
and  simple.
     They should also avoid jokes, since what is considered funny in one part
of the world may not be so humorous in another.
46. The best title of this passage might be __ .
   A. Culture Is Very Important ia Advertishag
  B. Avoid Cultural Misunderstanding between Nations
  C. Overcome Cultural Shock in Different Countries
  D. Advertisements Reflect Various Life Styles
47. What does the word "blunder" mean in this passage?
  A. hesitation     B. mistake     C. stutter     D. default
48. Which of the following statements can be used to summarize the gist from
     Paragraph 3 to Paragraph 6?
  A. Cultural shocks                B. Faulty translations
  C. Avoid cultural oversights      D. Prevent blunders
49. We can learn from the context in Paragraph 9 that the word "ca  " most
     probably mean____
  A. an animal used in perfume for its smell
  B. a piece of fabric used both in perfume and at funerals
  C. a flower used in perfume for its fragrance and used for funerals
  D. an nrnament used in prefume and at funerals
50. One way to prevent errors in advertising in different countries is to___
   A.fire the translators who don't know the target language.
   B.use the technique called "literal translation" to reduce the possibility of
        blunders
   C. avoid cultural oversights and avoid certain jokes
   D. explain in details when designing advertisement for other countries
Passage 3
     It is not unusual for chief executives to collect millions of dollars a year in
pay, stock options, and bonuses. In the last fifteen years, while executive
remuneration rose, taxes in the highest income bracket went down. Millionaires
are now commonplace.
     Amiability is not a prerequisite for rising to the top, and there are a
number of chief executive officers with legendary bad tempers. It is not the
boss's job to worry about the well-being of his subordinates although the man
with many enemies wi!! be swept out more quickly in hard times; it is the
company he worries about . His business savvy is supposed to be based on
intimate knowledge of .his company and the industry .so he goes home nightly
with a full briefcase. At the very top - and on the way up - executives are
exceedingly dedicated.
     The American executive must be capable of enough small talk to get him
through the social part of his schedule, but he is probably not a highly cultured
individual or an intellectual. Although his wife may be on the board of the
symphony or opera, he himself has little time for such pursuits. His reading
may largely concern business and management, despite interests in other fields.
Golf provides him with a sportive outlet that combines with some useful
socializing.
     These days, he probably attempts some form of aerobic exercise to "keep
the old heart in shape" and for the same reason goes easy on butter and alcohol,
and substances thought to contribute to taking highly stressed executives out of
the running. But his doctor's admonition to "take it easy" falls on deaf eyes. He
likes to work. He knows there are younger men nipping at his heels.
     Corporate  head-hunting, carried on by "executive search  fares," is a
growing industry. America has great faith in individual talent, and dynamic and
aggressive executives are so in demand that companies regularly raid each
other's managerial ranks.
  51. We can infer from the second paragraph that___
       A. promotion depends on amiability
       B. chief executives do not work hard enough at the top level
       C. it is the duty of the chief executive to look after the well-being of his
           subordinates
       D. a chief executive is expected to know more about his company and the
       industry
 52. The term "aerobic exercise" (fa'st line in second last paragraph) is a kind Of
       ____
      A. hallucination exercise
      B. physical exercise
      C. meditation exercise
      D. entertainment
 53. From the last paragraph we can gather that ____
      A. there are too many aggressive executives
      B. individual talent is not essential for a company
      C. the job of an "executive search rum" is corporate head-hunting
      D. it is not common for companies to undermine each other's managerial
          ranks
 54. For executives, according to the article, a golf course is a pl  where
     ________
      A. they can conduct their business
      B. they can indulge themselves
      C. they can cultivate their mind
      D. they can exercise as well as socialize
55. What is NOT tree according to the article?
     A. Executives tend to ignore doctors' advice and warnings.
     B. Executives are sensitive to pressure from the younger generation.
     C. All chief executives can earn millions of dollars a year.
     D. Executives are careful of what they eat.
Passage 4
     In November 1970 Yukio Mishima, together withsome of his fanatical
followers from the ultranationalistic Shield Society WhiCh. he had four, dod in
1966, broke into the headquarters of Japan's Eastern Defense Forces armed
with swords and daggers, overpowered some aides, tied up the commanding
general, and demanded that the troops be assembled to hear a speech. Mishima
addressed the troops for ten minutes, inciting them to rebel against the
constitutional govemment imposed by the United States that had, in his words,
"turned Japan spineless." Receiving only ridicule in response, he returned to the
 general's office and there, before the general's unbelieving eyes, proceeded to
kill himself in strict accordance with the tradifonal samurai ritual of seppuku.
After Mishima had driven a dagger deep into his left abdomen, one of his aides
severed his head with a sword. The aide likewise 'killed himself and was
5eheaded; the others surrendered.
      In 1936 there had been a similar revolt and, though equally unsuccessful,
it had foreshadowed the repressive re,me of General Tojo that was to stage tho
attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. That earlier revolt is the one referred to in
"Patriotism," one of Mishima's most powerful stories. Here life and fiction
become joined. The act of seppuku was for Mishima a fulfdlment, "the ultimate
dream of my life." Bom of an ancient samurai family, he longed to die a hero's
death in accordance with the ancient samurai code; but his weak body kept him
from  service in the war, and he had to compensate through body building (he
became expert at karate and kendo) and, most important, through the discipline
   writing. In his short lifetime he turned out twenty novels, thirty plays, many
essays, and more than eighty stories: he also produced, directed, and acted in
movies, and even sang on stage. His first book of stories, A Forest in Flower,
appeared in 1943, but it was Confession of a Mask (1948), dealing with the
meditations of a young man of homosexual leanings in a repressive society, that
brought him fame.
     Mishima has been called "Japan's Hemingway," while others have
compared him to "aesthetic" writers like Walter Peter and Oscar Wilde.
56. The article implies that
     A. Mishima refused to join the army when he was young
     B. Mishima has been regarded as a lunatic writer
     C. Mishima is a person who'is hard m define
     D. Critics all agree that Mishima is an aesthetic writer
57. The aim of the rebel led by Mishima was
     A. Fo capture the commanding genera!
      B. to urge the government to declare a war against America
      C. to incite the soldiers to rebel against the Constitutional govemment
      D. to force the Emperor to give up the throne
58. In the 1970 rebel, the speech made by Mishima____
     A. was web received by the soldiers
     B, was laughed at by the soldiers
     C. impressed the commanding general
     D, left a deep impression tO the soldiers
59. What IS true according to article?
     A. The general knew that Mishima had longed to die a hero's death.
     B. The general was greatly taken aback by Mishima's suicide attemnpt
     C. Some soldiers surrendered after Mishima's speech.
     D. one of Mishima's aides was killed by the soldiers.
60. Mishima became a well-known writer after he had ___
     A, written "Patriotism", one of his most powerful stories
     B. written eighty short stories
    C. published "A Forest in Flower"
    D. published "Confession of a Mask"
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 V. Translation (20 points)
Fart A. (10 points)
Directions: Translate the following passage into Chinese on your ANSWER
SHEET.
One might ask why speculation is permitted when there is so real a danger of
loss. The basic reason is that speculation can perform useful functions in the
economy. Buying a commodity or stock in the belief that prices will rise speeds
market equilibrium and encourages faster entry of more suppliers. If the price
change lagged until after an actual commodity shortage had occurred, the
fluctuation  would probably be sharper and more sudden. Remedial supply
action  could not be further delayed. Similarly, if speculators foresee a surplus in
some commodity, their selling of futures will help drive the price down to some
extent before the SurpluS actually occurs. When speculators foresee a shortage
and bid up the price, they are also helphng to conserve the present supply. As
the price goes up,less  of the commodity is purchased; a rise in price
encourages users to ecor, om2ze. Similarly, a lowering of price encourages users
to  buy more, thus helping to sell the surplus which is developing.
Part B. (10 points)
Directions: Translate the  following into EngIish on your ANSWER SHEET.
    中国已经发层成为一个全球极富吸引力的、现实的大市场。世界各国
  和地区不少有远见卓识的企业家,都将目光投向了中国,并从投资活动中
  获得了丰厚的回报。我相信,中国加入世贸组织后,外商参与中国投资活
  动的机会将越来越多,自身发展的空间也越来越大。在中国的投资活动一
  定能成为沟通世界各国和地区的企业家与中国市场的一座桥梁,促进中国
  和世界经济共同发展、共同繁荣。
VI. Writing (20 points)
Directions Write an essay in no less than 250 words with file title "My
Understanding of GlobaIization". Your essay should be written on the
Answer Sheet.

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