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2014年武汉大学考博英语真题阅读理解答案解析

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2014年武汉大学考博英语真题阅读理解答案解析

 

注:本篇武汉大学2013年考博英语真题阅读理解答案及详解截选自《华慧考博英语一本通》系列之《武汉大学考博英语一本通》,转载请注明出处!

Passage Three

Before the mid-1860's, the impact of the railroad in the United States was limited, in the sense that the tracks ended at the Missouri River, approximately the center of the country. At the point the trains turned their freight, mail, and passengers over to steamboats, wagons, and stagecoaches. This meant that wagon freighting, stage coaching, and steam boating did not come to an end when the first train appeared; rather they became supplements or feeders. Each new "end of track" became a center for animal-drawn or waterborne transportation. The major effect of the railroad was to shorten the distance that had to be covered by the older, slower, and more costly means. Wagon freighters continued operating throughout the 1870s and 1880s and into the 1890s.

   Over constantly shrinking route, coaches and wagons continued to crisscross the West wherever the rails had not yet been laid. The beginning of a major change was foreshadowed in the late 1860's, when the Union Pacific Railroad at last began to build westward from the Central Plains City of Omaha to meet the Central Pacific Railroad advancing eastward from California through the formidable harrier of the Sierra Nevada. Although President Abraham Lincoln signed the original Pacific Railroad Bill in 1862 and a revised, financially much more generous version in 1864, little construction was completed until 1865 on the Union Pacific and 1866 on the Union Pacific. The primary reason was skepticism that a railroad built through so challenging and thinly settled a stretch of deserts, mountains and semiarid plains could pay a profit. In the words of an economist, this was a case of "premature enterprise" where not only the cost of construction but also the very high risk deterred private investment. In discussing the Pacific Railroad Bill, the chair of the congressional committee bluntly stated that without government subsidy no one would undertake so unpromising a venture; yet it was a national necessity to link East and West together.

9. Why does the author refer to the impact of railroads before the late 1860's as "limited"?

  A. Because passengers preferred wagons and stagecoaches.

  B. Because other modes of transportation had to be employed.

  C. Because they were only center for waterborne transportation.

  D. Because the track did not take direct route from one city to the next.

10. What can be inferred about coaches and wagon freighters as the railroad expanded?

  A. They developed competing routes.

  B. Their drivers refused to work for the railroads.

  C. They began to specialize in private investment.

  D. There were insufficient trained people to operate them.

11. Why does the author mention the Sierra Nevada in paragraph 2?

  A. To point out the location of a serious train accident.

  B. To give an example of obstacles faced by the Central Pacific

  C. To argue that a direct route to the West could have been taken.

  D. To identify a historically significant mountain range in the West.

12. Why little construction was completed though the bill had long been signed?

  A. Because of a worry that little benefit would be gained.

  B. Because of a harsh, challenging and thinly settled plain

  C. Because of a change of the plan owing to the high cost.

  D. Because of a continued running of coaches and wagons.

本文节选自2013武汉大学考博英语真题卷阅读理解部分第三篇阅读解理真题试题。由华慧考博辅导老师对真题卷进行深入分析与解析之后,本文将这篇阅读理解的解题技与思路以及参考译文总结整理如下:

 

【文章大意】

19世纪60年代中期之前,美国铁路的影响力有限。铁路出现时,汽船、马车运输并没有衰落,相反成为其补充。铁路的出现缩短了老式或昂贵运输方式的运输里程,马车货运在西部没有铁路铺设的地方热闹非凡。19世纪60年代末,情况开始变化,太平洋联合铁路开始由位于中央平原的奥马哈市向西扩建,与中太平洋铁路会合,中太平洋铁从加利福尼亚经过内华达山脉的巨大障碍,向东挺进。虽然亚伯拉罕林肯总统1862签署了原来的太平洋铁路方案其修订版以及1864年的大规模投入的方案,但1865年和1866年太平洋联合铁路也没有建成多少,主要原因是投资者怀疑铁路通过地区为荒漠,无利可图。经济学家认为,这条铁路不仅建设成本高风险也大,私人不会投资。美国国委员会直言不讳地指出,没有政府补贴,没有人愿意承担这样冒险工程项目,但是这条铁路的确将美国东西部连接起来。

 

【答案详解】

第一题:

B  细节理解题。根据第一段,the tracks ended at the Missouri River, approximately the   center of the country.... boating did not come to an end when the first train appeared; rather they became supplements or feeders. 意思是说铁路那时是其他运输方式的补充,不是主要运输方式,在密西西比中心,铁路的运输任务交给其他运输方式,铁路的主要作用是缩短靠古老、缓慢且费用高昂的交通工具行驶的路程。A项因为乘客倾向于马车货运;B项因为有其他的运输方式;C项因为是水路运输的中心;D项因为线路不能从一个城市到另一个城市。可知答案为B

第二题:

A  推断题。文中第二段第一句Over constantly shrinking routes, coaches and wagons continued to crisscross the West wherever the rails had not yet been laid. 马车和货车路线在不断地萎缩,但马车和货车在西部没有铺设铁轨的地方纵横交错。可知随着铁路的发展,传统的货运方式逐渐衰落,但是在火车线路不能到达的地方,这些传统运输方式积极发挥作用。答案为A

第三题:

B  细节理解题。根据第二段第二句,The beginning of a major change was foreshadowed in the late 1860's...from California through the formidable barrier of the Sierra Nevada.19世纪60年代末,重大变化已露端倪,在这一时期,太平洋联合铁路终于开始由位于中央平原的奥马哈市向西扩建,与中太平洋铁蹄会台,中太平洋铁从加利福尼亚经过内华达山脉的巨大障碍,向东挺进。A项指出铁路事故的地点;B选项中太平洋面对的障碍的例子;C选项声称通向西部的线路已经正在实施;D项明确了西部山脉的历史重要性。可知B为正确选项。

第四题:

A  细节理解题。根据第二段The primary reason was skepticism...where not only the cost of construction but also the very high risk deterred private investment.,主要原因是有一种怀疑论调,不知在险峻而又人烟稀少的一片沙漠、山脉和半干旱的平原上修铁路是否有利可图。而后官员又说没有政府投资是不可能建立此条线路的。可见本题的正确选项为A,其余选项均不正确。

 

根据短文的解析以及所考试题所侧重的考点,我们择重从这篇阅读理解之中截取出了有可能导致考生出现做题失误几个长难句进行重点剖析。这也是整篇阅读理解对我们考博备生的学生在利用考博真题试卷进行复习的时候所需要掌握的重点所在。

 

【长难句剖析】

1.The major effect of the railroad was to shorten the distance that had to be covered by the older, slower and more costly means.

参考译文】铁路的主要作用是缩短了以前旧式的、速度慢的以及运输成本大的运输方式的运输距离。

结构分析】句子的主干为:The major effect of the railroad was to...to后跟动词短语作表语。that引导定语从句,修饰the distancemeans指的是运输方式。

The beginning of a major change was foreshadowed in the late 1860's, when the Union Pacific Railroad at last began to build westward from the Central Plains City of Omaha to meet the Central Pacific Railroad advancing eastward from California through the formidable barrier of the Sierra Nevada.

参考译文19世纪60年代末,重大变化已露端倪,当时在太平洋铁路联合体最后开始建设从奥巴马市的城市中心平原连接太平洋铁路中心向西的铁路,它推动了从加利福尼亚穿过内华达山脉的重重险阻向东的铁路。

结构分析 句子的主干为change was foreshadowedWhen引导时间状语从句, from the Central Plains City of Omaha to meet the Central Pacific Railroad,作定语修饰westward  advancing eastward...作定语,修饰前面的Central Pacific Railroadthrough the formidable harrier of the Sierra Nevada.介词短语作状语。句子中的定语和状语使用较多,造成理解困难。

In discussing the Pacific Railroad Bin, the chair of the congressional committee bluntly stated that without government subsidy no one would undertake so unpromising a venture; yet it was a national necessity to link East and West together.

参考译文】在讨论太平洋铁路时,国会委员会主席直言不讳地指出,没有政府的资助,没有人能够承担这种无利可图的工程,然而它的确将美国东西部连接起来了。

结构分析】句子的结构为the chair of the congressional committee stated that...In discussing...介词短语作状语表伴随,that引导的宾语从句修饰state,句式使用虚拟语气,it was a national necessity to...为主语从句。It为形式主语,实际的主语是to后面的句子。

武汉大学2018年考博英语真题一本通系列 

 注:本篇武汉大学2014年考博英语真题阅读理解答案及详解截选自《华慧考博英语一本通》系列之《武汉大学考博英语一本通》,转载请注明出处!

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