华慧考博英语重点语法之一:定语从句

2022-09-05 09:20点击次数:375

华慧考博英语重点语法之一:定语从句
定语从句三要素先行词、关系词、定语从句
1They were government employees(先行词) who(关系词) had been filling out surveys about their health regimens(定语从句). (华慧中国科学院大学阅读真题,2020)
2Our bodies are very good at eliminating all the nasties (先行词) that (关系词) we might digest over the festive season(定语从句). (华慧中国科学院大学阅读真题,2018)
3Their eyes are collecting the surrounding light, which in turn allows them to process and analyze the existing magnetic fields and to keep themselves pointed in the right direction.(华慧吉林大学阅读真题,2015)
4His career began on Wall Street (先行词)almost 70 years ago, where (关系词) he became a pioneer of modern venture capitalism(定语从句), compounding his inherited wealth many times over. (华慧中国科学院大学阅读真题,2011)

一、先行词
定语从句中,先行词可以指人(如例1),也可以指物(如例2),一般是名词或代词充当,先行词还可以是前面整个句子所提及的内容。(如例3
二、关系词引导定语从句
作用:关系词替代前面修饰的先行词连接主句和定语从句在定语从句中作句子成分
分类:关系代词that/which/who/whom/whose/as在从句中做 主,宾,表,定关系副词(when/where/why在从句中作状语)
三、定语从句:用来做定语,修饰限定先行词的句子
分类限制性定语从句如例1和例2非限制性定语从句如例3和例4

定语从句的几大难点
一、.关系代词的省略(限定性定语从句)
关系代词在定语从句中作宾语表语时可省略。
The cat (that) I bought has a cute head. (that 可省)
比较:The cat that is eating an apple has a cute head.  (that不可省)

二、特殊的先行词
(1)way在定语从句中做状语时的三种引导方式 that / in which / 不填
One final way that men and women differ is in their typical responses to problem-solving. (四川大学阅读真题,2018)
The way in which / that /不填 he explains the sentence to us is quite simple.
(2)先行词time
time表示次数时,用关系代词that引导定语从句
This is the first time that the president has visited the country.
time一段时间讲时,应用关系副词when
This was the time when there were no radios, no telephones or no TV sets
此时when = during which ..期间
(3)先行词reason当在定语从句中作状语时,4中引导方 why/for which/that/不填
This is the reason why/for which/that/不填 he can not come here.
比较:Is this the reason that/which/不填he explained to us for his absence from the conference.
★reason 在定语从句中做explain的宾语

三、关系副词
部分学生看到when, where, why 引导的从句时,倾向于认为时状语从句,其实不然,关系副词也可以引导定语从句,只是在从句中不充当主干成分,而是修饰成分状语。关系副词引导定语从句时,可以替换为:相应的介词+which
(1) when 在定语从句中做时间状语,先行词为表示时间的time, day
Men’s conversation is peppered with dates and addresses, illustrating their comfort with systems: “Back in 1996 when I was living in Boston…” or “The best way to the new stadium is to go all the way out Walnut Street to 33rd and then get on the bypass…” (四川大学阅读真题,2018)
when = in which
(2) where 在定语从句中做地点状语,先行词为表地点的place, spot
For example, insects disappear during the cold months, prompting insect-dependent birds to fly south to warm areas where insects breed. (吉林大学阅读真题,2015)
(where = in which)
(3) why 在定语从句中做原因状语,先行词只有reason.
The reason why she dropped out of school is that she didnt want to increase the familys financial burden. (why = for which)

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